CA

October 2014 results – big changes

While last month’s results were not very interesting, this month is anything but.

But before we go into results, there were few small changes to how the statistics are reported. First difference is that the “x:FF 29 RC4 Preferred” now includes sites that prefer RC4 ciphers independent of other ciphers. Second is the addition of new item “Insecure”, which is the sum total of sites that use any cipher with a “z:” state, it does not include sites that also include IDEA or SEED ciphers. Ciphersuites that use those two ciphers are now prefixed with “y:”, as they are iffy in the sense that they haven’t been widely analysed, but otherwise don’t have known weaknesses.

Since the last scan two big things happened. POODLE attack that has shown SSLv3 to be completely insecure in CBC mode and Cloudflare deploying their Universal SSL.The former should cause far less sites to have SSLv3 enabled while the former should show more sites using ECDSA certificates and more TLS enabled sites in general.

Cipher suite results

This time ’round, the number of TLS enabled servers has increased by over 33 thousand (7.6%) a much bigger amount than previous months.

Usage of AES-GCM has increased by 5.5% to 48.3%. Surprisingly the percentage of CAMELLIA enabled servers has fallen, but it’s caused by the overall increase of number of TLS enabled servers, not by fewer servers supporting this cipher.

As far as bad choices go, sites that use completely broken ciphers (AECDH, single DES, export grade, etc.) has fallen by 2.6% to 20.3%.

RC4 is still a problem, percent of servers that support it has fallen by just 2%. Percentage of servers that don’t support anything else has decreased by just 0.13% to 0.82%. It’s a biggest drop in months, but it still makes it impossible for browser vendors to drop it completely.  Similar fate share servers that prefer RC4 where their numbers fallen by just 2.28% to 15.5% of total. The good news is that it’s a reversal of a few months negative trend.

Misconfiguration that causes AECDH ciphers to be enabled is still common, just 0.6% fewer servers support it compared to last month, bringing their numbers to around 3.2%.

Cipher ordering has shown a big shift this time, just over 60% server now use their order instead of client side order, a change of over 5%!

There is also a rather big up-tick in fraction of servers that don’t enable the RSA key exchange, from less than a 1% to nearly 4% now.

More servers also started preferring Forward Secrecy: an increase of 3.8% to 68.6%. Also more servers support PFS now: 2.2% more for a total of 82%.

Server certificates

Another significant change are the certificates used by servers, while previously just 4 servers did use certificates signed by a ECDSA CA, now there are nearly 21 thousands of them, giving a total of 4.8% of servers using them. The servers that use RSA CAs have also seen a big change, nearly 4% more servers now have their certificates signed with SHA256, to a total of 20.5%.

The vast majority of those new ECDSA certificates use P-256 curve, a total of 6.6%, creating an increase of 4.5%.

Protocols

Obviously SSLv3 support has taken a blow, its use has fallen by over 26%, bringing its support to 69.5% (far too small change given the severity of POODLE). It looks like many administrators also have taken the time to actually update the cryptographic libraries they use, as TLS1.2 support has increased by 4.5% to a total of 64%.

Trust chains

With the introduction of ECDSA CAs, we can finally see a significant percentage of servers reach 128 bit level of security. We can also see that all of intermediate ECDSA CAs have been signed with SHA384. No big changes besides that.

Detailed cipher suite statistics

SSL/TLS survey of 435987 websites from Alexa's top 1 million
Stats only from connections that did provide valid certificates
(or anonymous DH from servers that do also have valid certificate installed)


Supported Ciphers         Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
3DES                      377229    86.523
3DES Only                 168       0.0385
AES                       409388    93.8991
AES Only                  2002      0.4592
AES-CBC Only              877       0.2012
AES-GCM                   210554    48.2936
AES-GCM Only              17        0.0039
CAMELLIA                  171200    39.2672
CHACHA20                  14611     3.3512
Insecure                  88343     20.2628
RC4                       375776    86.1897
RC4 Only                  3595      0.8246
RC4 Preferred             67695     15.5268
RC4 forced in TLS1.1+     47943     10.9964
x:FF 29 RC4 Only          5814      1.3335
x:FF 29 RC4 Preferred     79458     18.2249
x:FF 29 incompatible      164       0.0376
y:DHE-RSA-SEED-SHA        80620     18.4914
y:IDEA-CBC-MD5            3756      0.8615
y:IDEA-CBC-SHA            67532     15.4895
y:SEED-SHA                86784     19.9052
z:ADH-AES128-GCM-SHA256   338       0.0775
z:ADH-AES128-SHA          1197      0.2745
z:ADH-AES128-SHA256       317       0.0727
z:ADH-AES256-GCM-SHA384   338       0.0775
z:ADH-AES256-SHA          1202      0.2757
z:ADH-AES256-SHA256       317       0.0727
z:ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA     559       0.1282
z:ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA     567       0.13
z:ADH-DES-CBC-SHA         530       0.1216
z:ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA        1250      0.2867
z:ADH-RC4-MD5             1059      0.2429
z:ADH-SEED-SHA            393       0.0901
z:AECDH-AES128-SHA        14245     3.2673
z:AECDH-AES256-SHA        14255     3.2696
z:AECDH-DES-CBC3-SHA      14216     3.2606
z:AECDH-NULL-SHA          30        0.0069
z:AECDH-RC4-SHA           13277     3.0453
z:DES-CBC-MD5             24072     5.5213
z:DES-CBC-SHA             66848     15.3326
z:ECDHE-RSA-NULL-SHA      36        0.0083
z:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA     58599     13.4405
z:EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA     435       0.0998
z:EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5         438       0.1005
z:EXP-DES-CBC-SHA         52036     11.9352
z:EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA 40390     9.264
z:EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5         56308     12.9151
z:NULL-MD5                359       0.0823
z:NULL-SHA                361       0.0828
z:NULL-SHA256             19        0.0044
z:RC2-CBC-MD5             28014     6.4254

Cipher ordering           Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
Client side               170342    39.0704
Server side               265645    60.9296

FF 29 selected ciphers        Count    Percent
-----------------------------+---------+------
AES128-SHA                     41722     9.5696
AES256-SHA                     25362     5.8171
CAMELLIA128-SHA                132       0.0303
CAMELLIA256-SHA                45        0.0103
DES-CBC3-SHA                   1046      0.2399
DHE-RSA-AES128-SHA             98725     22.644
DHE-RSA-AES256-SHA             14490     3.3235
DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA128-SHA        34        0.0078
DHE-RSA-CAMELLIA256-SHA        540       0.1239
ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256  28993     6.65
ECDHE-ECDSA-AES128-SHA         33        0.0076
ECDHE-ECDSA-AES256-SHA         1         0.0002
ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256    115469    26.4845
ECDHE-RSA-AES128-SHA           3024      0.6936
ECDHE-RSA-AES256-SHA           26483     6.0743
ECDHE-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA         41        0.0094
ECDHE-RSA-RC4-SHA              22083     5.0651
EDH-RSA-DES-CBC3-SHA           234       0.0537
RC4-MD5                        14117     3.2379
RC4-SHA                        43249     9.9198
x:DHE                          114023    26.1528
x:ECDHE                        196127    44.9846
x:kRSA                         125673    28.8249

Supported Handshakes      Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
ADH                       1316      0.3018
AECDH                     14284     3.2762
DHE                       211473    48.5044
ECDHE                     234954    53.8901
ECDHE and DHE             88609     20.3238
RSA                       418706    96.0363

Supported PFS             Count     Percent  PFS Percent
-------------------------+---------+--------+-----------
DH,1024bits               191816    43.9958  90.7047
DH,1536bits               1         0.0002   0.0005
DH,2048bits               17701     4.06     8.3703
DH,2226bits               1         0.0002   0.0005
DH,2236bits               2         0.0005   0.0009
DH,2430bits               1         0.0002   0.0005
DH,3072bits               9         0.0021   0.0043
DH,3247bits               1         0.0002   0.0005
DH,3248bits               2         0.0005   0.0009
DH,4096bits               1006      0.2307   0.4757
DH,512bits                40546     9.2998   19.1731
DH,768bits                779       0.1787   0.3684
DH,8192bits               1         0.0002   0.0005
ECDH,B-163,163bits        15        0.0034   0.0064
ECDH,B-571,570bits        456       0.1046   0.1941
ECDH,P-224,224bits        6         0.0014   0.0026
ECDH,P-256,256bits        233089    53.4624  99.2062
ECDH,P-384,384bits        675       0.1548   0.2873
ECDH,P-521,521bits        1259      0.2888   0.5358
Prefer DH,1024bits        111225    25.5111  52.5954
Prefer DH,1536bits        1         0.0002   0.0005
Prefer DH,2048bits        1875      0.4301   0.8866
Prefer DH,2236bits        1         0.0002   0.0005
Prefer DH,3072bits        1         0.0002   0.0005
Prefer DH,4096bits        61        0.014    0.0288
Prefer DH,512bits         6         0.0014   0.0028
Prefer DH,768bits         443       0.1016   0.2095
Prefer ECDH,B-163,163bits 15        0.0034   0.0064
Prefer ECDH,B-571,570bits 357       0.0819   0.1519
Prefer ECDH,P-224,224bits 4         0.0009   0.0017
Prefer ECDH,P-256,256bits 183233    42.0272  77.9868
Prefer ECDH,P-384,384bits 616       0.1413   0.2622
Prefer ECDH,P-521,521bits 1191      0.2732   0.5069
Prefer PFS                299029    68.5867  0
Support PFS               357818    82.0708  0

TLS session ticket hint   Count     Percent 
-------------------------+---------+--------
3                         2         0.0005   
3 only                    2         0.0005   
5                         1         0.0002   
5 only                    1         0.0002   
10                        1         0.0002   
10 only                   1         0.0002   
30                        10        0.0023   
30 only                   3         0.0007   
60                        57        0.0131   
60 only                   50        0.0115   
64                        1         0.0002   
100                       17        0.0039   
100 only                  17        0.0039   
120                       14        0.0032   
120 only                  14        0.0032   
128                       2         0.0005   
128 only                  2         0.0005   
180                       27        0.0062   
180 only                  27        0.0062   
240                       3         0.0007   
240 only                  3         0.0007   
300                       168875    38.734   
300 only                  151039    34.643   
360                       1         0.0002   
360 only                  1         0.0002   
400                       1         0.0002   
400 only                  1         0.0002   
420                       22        0.005    
420 only                  13        0.003    
480                       10        0.0023   
480 only                  10        0.0023   
600                       9358      2.1464   
600 only                  9103      2.0879   
900                       289       0.0663   
900 only                  266       0.061    
960                       2         0.0005   
960 only                  2         0.0005   
1000                      1         0.0002   
1000 only                 1         0.0002   
1200                      64        0.0147   
1200 only                 61        0.014    
1500                      9         0.0021   
1500 only                 8         0.0018   
1800                      211       0.0484   
1800 only                 204       0.0468   
2100                      1         0.0002   
2100 only                 1         0.0002   
2400                      1         0.0002   
2400 only                 1         0.0002   
2700                      5         0.0011   
2700 only                 5         0.0011   
3000                      11        0.0025   
3000 only                 11        0.0025   
3600                      296       0.0679   
3600 only                 281       0.0645   
5400                      2         0.0005   
7200                      11402     2.6152   
7200 only                 8697      1.9948   
10800                     15        0.0034   
10800 only                8         0.0018   
14400                     929       0.2131   
14400 only                927       0.2126   
21600                     723       0.1658   
21600 only                722       0.1656   
28800                     8         0.0018   
28800 only                8         0.0018   
36000                     409       0.0938   
36000 only                408       0.0936   
43200                     5170      1.1858   
43200 only                5170      1.1858   
64800                     37708     8.6489   
64800 only                33313     7.6408   
72000                     8         0.0018   
72000 only                8         0.0018   
86000                     27        0.0062   
86000 only                23        0.0053   
86400                     168       0.0385   
86400 only                167       0.0383   
100800                    14357     3.293    
100800 only               17        0.0039   
115200                    1         0.0002   
115200 only               1         0.0002   
129600                    11        0.0025   
129600 only               11        0.0025   
604800                    1         0.0002   
604800 only               1         0.0002   
864000                    4         0.0009   
864000 only               4         0.0009   
None                      225373    51.6926  
None only                 185753    42.6052  

Certificate sig alg     Count     Percent 
-------------------------+---------+--------
None                      15401     3.5324   
ecdsa-with-SHA256         20950     4.8052   
sha1WithRSAEncryption     330148    75.7243  
sha256WithRSAEncryption   89341     20.4917  
sha512WithRSAEncryption   1         0.0002   

Certificate key size    Count     Percent 
-------------------------+---------+--------
ECDSA 256                 29029     6.6582   
ECDSA 384                 2         0.0005   
ECDSA 521                 1         0.0002   
RSA 1024                  1672      0.3835   
RSA 2028                  1         0.0002   
RSA 2047                  2         0.0005   
RSA 2048                  403610    92.5739  
RSA 2049                  1         0.0002   
RSA 2056                  5         0.0011   
RSA 2058                  2         0.0005   
RSA 2064                  1         0.0002   
RSA 2080                  2         0.0005
RSA 2084                  8         0.0018
RSA 2345                  1         0.0002
RSA 2408                  2         0.0005
RSA 2432                  11        0.0025
RSA 2536                  1         0.0002
RSA 3050                  1         0.0002
RSA 3072                  61        0.014
RSA 3096                  1         0.0002
RSA 3248                  3         0.0007
RSA 3600                  1         0.0002
RSA 4046                  2         0.0005
RSA 4048                  2         0.0005
RSA 4056                  4         0.0009
RSA 4069                  1         0.0002
RSA 4086                  2         0.0005
RSA 4092                  4         0.0009
RSA 4096                  14038     3.2198
RSA 4098                  2         0.0005
RSA 4192                  1         0.0002
RSA 8192                  5         0.0011
RSA/ECDSA Dual Stack      12472     2.8606

OCSP stapling             Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+--------
Supported                 60520     13.8811
Unsupported               375467    86.1189

Supported Protocols       Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
SSL2                      44800     10.2755
SSL2 Only                 5536      1.2698
SSL3                      302890    69.4723
SSL3 Only                 2971      0.6814
SSL3 or TLS1 Only         109447    25.1033
TLS1                      426128    97.7387
TLS1 Only                 22838     5.2382
TLS1.1                    270662    62.0803
TLS1.1 Only               25        0.0057
TLS1.1 or up Only         610       0.1399
TLS1.2                    279090    64.0134
TLS1.2 Only               441       0.1011
TLS1.2, 1.0 but not 1.1   12266     2.8134

Detailed trust chain statistics

Statistics from 484280 chains provided by 627529 hosts

Server provided chains    Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
complete                  403421    64.2872
incomplete                30809     4.9096
untrusted                 193299    30.8032

Trusted chain statistics
========================

Chain length              Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
2                         2084      0.4303
3                         460867    95.1654
4                         21301     4.3985
5                         28        0.0058

CA key size in chains     Count
-------------------------+---------
ECDSA 256                 20950     
ECDSA 384                 20950     
RSA 1024                  1362      
RSA 2045                  1         
RSA 2048                  915053    
RSA 4096                  29517     

Chains with CA key        Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
ECDSA 256                 20950     4.326
ECDSA 384                 20950     4.326
RSA 1024                  1357      0.2802
RSA 2045                  1         0.0002
RSA 2048                  461970    95.3932
RSA 4096                  29113     6.0116

Signature algorithm (ex. root) Count
------------------------------+---------
ecdsa-with-SHA384              20950     
sha1WithRSAEncryption          377133    
sha256WithRSAEncryption        68752     
sha384WithRSAEncryption        36708     
sha512WithRSAEncryption        10        

Eff. host cert chain LoS  Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
80                        377698    77.9917
112                       85631     17.6821
128                       20951     4.3262

Common Root CAs                               Count     Percent
---------------------------------------------+---------+-------
(2c543cd1) GeoTrust Global CA                 118634    24.497
(157753a5) AddTrust External CA Root          75645     15.6201
(5ad8a5d6) GlobalSign Root CA                 56056     11.5751
(cbf06781) Go Daddy Root Certificate Authorit 34301     7.0829
(2e4eed3c) thawte Primary Root CA             27922     5.7657
(b204d74a) VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Ce 27262     5.6294
(244b5494) DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA 23640     4.8815
(eed8c118) COMODO ECC Certification Authority 20947     4.3254
(f081611a) The Go Daddy Group, Inc.           21077     4.3522
(b13cc6df) UTN-USERFirst-Hardware             13019     2.6883
(653b494a) Baltimore CyberTrust Root          11115     2.2952
(40547a79) COMODO Certification Authority     10071     2.0796
(ae8153b9) StartCom Certification Authority   8762      1.8093
(f387163d) Starfield Technologies, Inc.       8273      1.7083

The scan was performed between 13th and 24th of October 2014.

Cleanup of 1024-bit CA certificates

Mozilla is working towards removal of all 1024 bit CA certificates in their trust store. That means that if you depend on root CA or intermediate CA that has those weak RSA keys, your website or server may stop working in near future.

The first batch of changes will affect Firefox 32 users and Fedora 20 (after updating to ca-certificates-2014.2.1-1.0.fc20).

Go to kuix.de for more information, how to tell if you’ll be affected (without using Qualys SSL Labs scanner) and what to do if you are.

July 2014 scan results

This month’s scan results are a bit later than previous ones, this was caused by me working on code to compile statistics of the certificates used by Certificate Authorities (see further below for results of this part of the scan). The state of TLS and crypto in general in python didn’t help much, but that’s a topic for another post, for now I can direct you to the very good presentation by Hynek Schlawack: The Sorry State Of SSL (the python specific part is towards the end).

Ciphersuites

All in all, the results haven’t changed much. We can see the continuation of the downward trend for RC4 Only servers, the unfortunate upwards trend of servers that prefer RC4 but support other ciphers and the very good trend of SHA256 certificate signatures.

The new addition are the “x:FF 29” lines that account for situations for which Firefox cipher selection (advertised support) causes it to negotiate different cipher suites than OpenSSL would negotiate. In other words, for Firefox, the percent of servers that are RC4 only is around 2.6% and servers which prefer RC4 but support other ciphers is at around 21.8%.

It also looks like many people that update their servers/OpenSSL, don’t update their cipher strings, which makes servers that used “!ADH” in cipher string negotiate AECDH cipher suites (to prevent it from them doing that, you should use “!aNULL” which will disable all anonymous cipher suites, present and future, head over to Mozilla guide for more details). The amount of them has grown from 2.9% to 3.3%.

Amount of servers that support PFS haven’t changed, as well as the PFS mechanisms they support.

We also see continuation of the trend of SHA256 signatures in certificates, it has grown from 11.9% to 12.7%.

Used key sizes haven’t changed much.

Surprisingly the amount of servers that support OCSP stapling has dramatically decreased, from 14.9% to 10.1%. I have no explanation for that.

The percentage of servers that support only SSL3 or TLS1 has dropped from 41.5% to 30%, but this is likely caused by the reintroduction of proper SSLv2 fingerprinting rather than changed configurations as the amount of servers that support TLS1.1 or TLS1.2 haven’t changed to match. Previous months’ low percentage of SSLv2 servers was caused by a bug in scanning script that made it impossible to correctly detect most SSLv2 sites.

SSL/TLS survey of 393337 websites from Alexa's top 1 million
Stats only from connections that did provide valid certificates
(or anonymous DH from servers that do also have valid certificate installed)


Supported Ciphers         Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
3DES                      344071    87.4749
3DES Only                 152       0.0386
AES                       364726    92.7261
AES Only                  879       0.2235
AES-CBC Only              510       0.1297
AES-GCM                   156262    39.7273
AES-GCM Only              6         0.0015
CAMELLIA                  161308    41.0101
CHACHA20                  15543     3.9516
RC4                       350784    89.1815
RC4 Only                  3734      0.9493
RC4 Preferred             69540     17.6795
RC4 forced in TLS1.1+     45989     11.692
x:FF 29 RC4 Only          6429      1.6345
x:FF 29 RC4 Preferred     16265     4.1351
x:FF 29 incompatible      103       0.0262
z:ADH-AES128-GCM-SHA256   351       0.0892
z:ADH-AES128-SHA          1439      0.3658
z:ADH-AES128-SHA256       325       0.0826
z:ADH-AES256-GCM-SHA384   337       0.0857
z:ADH-AES256-SHA          1445      0.3674
z:ADH-AES256-SHA256       330       0.0839
z:ADH-CAMELLIA128-SHA     722       0.1836
z:ADH-CAMELLIA256-SHA     733       0.1864
z:ADH-DES-CBC-SHA         723       0.1838
z:ADH-DES-CBC3-SHA        1496      0.3803
z:ADH-RC4-MD5             1326      0.3371
z:ADH-SEED-SHA            587       0.1492
z:AECDH-AES128-SHA        13159     3.3455
z:AECDH-AES256-SHA        13161     3.346
z:AECDH-DES-CBC3-SHA      13122     3.3361
z:AECDH-NULL-SHA          14        0.0036
z:AECDH-RC4-SHA           12264     3.1179
z:DES-CBC-MD5             27892     7.0911
z:DES-CBC-SHA             76809     19.5275
z:DHE-RSA-SEED-SHA        68828     17.4985
z:ECDHE-RSA-NULL-SHA      17        0.0043
z:EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA     61870     15.7295
z:EXP-ADH-DES-CBC-SHA     469       0.1192
z:EXP-ADH-RC4-MD5         473       0.1203
z:EXP-DES-CBC-SHA         62566     15.9065
z:EXP-EDH-RSA-DES-CBC-SHA 44087     11.2085
z:EXP-RC2-CBC-MD5         67561     17.1764
z:IDEA-CBC-MD5            10575     2.6885
z:IDEA-CBC-SHA            70335     17.8816
z:NULL-MD5                339       0.0862
z:NULL-SHA                337       0.0857
z:NULL-SHA256             6         0.0015
z:RC2-CBC-MD5             38543     9.799
z:SEED-SHA                83026     21.1081

Cipher ordering           Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
Client side               183896    46.7528
Server side               209441    53.2472

Supported Handshakes      Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
ADH                       1562      0.3971
AECDH                     13188     3.3529
DHE                       198612    50.4941
ECDH                      1         0.0003
ECDHE                     175607    44.6454
ECDHE and DHE             67049     17.0462
RSA                       393014    99.9179

Supported PFS             Count     Percent  PFS Percent
-------------------------+---------+--------+-----------
DH,1024bits               183927    46.7607  92.6062
DH,2048bits               13134     3.3391   6.6129
DH,2226bits               2         0.0005   0.001
DH,3072bits               4         0.001    0.002
DH,3248bits               4         0.001    0.002
DH,4096bits               620       0.1576   0.3122
DH,512bits                44238     11.2468  22.2736
DH,768bits                771       0.196    0.3882
DH,8192bits               1         0.0003   0.0005
ECDH,B-163,163bits        16        0.0041   0.0091
ECDH,B-571,570bits        392       0.0997   0.2232
ECDH,P-224,224bits        4         0.001    0.0023
ECDH,P-256,256bits        174312    44.3162  99.2626
ECDH,P-384,384bits        207       0.0526   0.1179
ECDH,P-521,521bits        764       0.1942   0.4351
Prefer DH,1024bits        117558    29.8873  59.1898
Prefer DH,2048bits        1721      0.4375   0.8665
Prefer DH,4096bits        54        0.0137   0.0272
Prefer DH,512bits         2         0.0005   0.001
Prefer DH,768bits         87        0.0221   0.0438
Prefer ECDH,B-163,163bits 16        0.0041   0.0091
Prefer ECDH,B-571,570bits 304       0.0773   0.1731
Prefer ECDH,P-224,224bits 1         0.0003   0.0006
Prefer ECDH,P-256,256bits 126826    32.2436  72.2215
Prefer ECDH,P-384,384bits 135       0.0343   0.0769
Prefer ECDH,P-521,521bits 699       0.1777   0.398
Prefer PFS                247403    62.8985  0
Support PFS               307170    78.0933  0

TLS session ticket hint   Count     Percent 
-------------------------+---------+--------
5                         2         0.0005   
5 only                    2         0.0005   
10                        2         0.0005   
30                        1         0.0003   
30 only                   1         0.0003   
60                        15        0.0038   
60 only                   10        0.0025   
120                       7         0.0018   
120 only                  6         0.0015   
128                       5         0.0013   
128 only                  5         0.0013   
180                       24        0.0061   
180 only                  24        0.0061   
240                       7         0.0018   
240 only                  7         0.0018   
300                       145958    37.1076  
300 only                  127245    32.3501  
420                       12        0.0031   
420 only                  10        0.0025   
480                       6         0.0015   
480 only                  6         0.0015   
600                       6491      1.6502   
600 only                  6280      1.5966   
900                       188       0.0478   
900 only                  158       0.0402   
960                       2         0.0005   
960 only                  2         0.0005   
1200                      54        0.0137   
1200 only                 52        0.0132   
1500                      12        0.0031   
1500 only                 11        0.0028   
1800                      121       0.0308   
1800 only                 116       0.0295   
2400                      1         0.0003   
2400 only                 1         0.0003   
2700                      1         0.0003   
2700 only                 1         0.0003   
3000                      5         0.0013   
3000 only                 4         0.001    
3600                      239       0.0608   
3600 only                 235       0.0597   
5400                      2         0.0005   
6000                      1         0.0003   
6000 only                 1         0.0003   
7200                      10678     2.7147   
7200 only                 1678      0.4266   
10800                     7         0.0018   
10800 only                3         0.0008   
14400                     650       0.1653   
14400 only                650       0.1653   
18000                     1         0.0003   
18000 only                1         0.0003   
21600                     27        0.0069   
21600 only                27        0.0069   
28800                     5         0.0013   
28800 only                5         0.0013   
30720                     1         0.0003   
30720 only                1         0.0003   
36000                     477       0.1213   
36000 only                477       0.1213   
43200                     6420      1.6322   
43200 only                6420      1.6322   
64800                     9211      2.3418   
64800 only                9208      2.341    
86000                     28        0.0071   
86000 only                26        0.0066   
86400                     4228      1.0749   
86400 only                4223      1.0736   
100800                    15552     3.9539   
100800 only               11        0.0028   
115200                    1         0.0003   
115200 only               1         0.0003   
129600                    7         0.0018   
129600 only               7         0.0018   
864000                    6         0.0015   
864000 only               6         0.0015   
None                      236414    60.1047  
None only                 192884    49.0378  

Certificate sig alg     Count     Percent 
-------------------------+---------+--------
None                      14656     3.7261   
sha1WithRSAEncryption     343217    87.2577  
sha256WithRSAEncryption   50153     12.7506  

Certificate key size    Count     Percent 
-------------------------+---------+--------
ECDSA 256                 8717      2.2162   
RSA 1024                  1894      0.4815   
RSA 2028                  1         0.0003   
RSA 2047                  1         0.0003   
RSA 2048                  377818    96.0545  
RSA 2049                  1         0.0003   
RSA 2056                  5         0.0013   
RSA 2058                  1         0.0003   
RSA 2060                  1         0.0003   
RSA 2064                  1         0.0003
RSA 2080                  2         0.0005
RSA 2084                  5         0.0013
RSA 2408                  3         0.0008
RSA 2432                  48        0.0122
RSA 2536                  1         0.0003
RSA 2612                  1         0.0003
RSA 3050                  1         0.0003
RSA 3072                  40        0.0102
RSA 3120                  1         0.0003
RSA 3248                  3         0.0008
RSA 3600                  1         0.0003
RSA 4042                  1         0.0003
RSA 4046                  2         0.0005
RSA 4048                  2         0.0005
RSA 4086                  1         0.0003
RSA 4092                  2         0.0005
RSA 4096                  13502     3.4327
RSA 4098                  3         0.0008
RSA 4192                  1         0.0003
RSA 8192                  5         0.0013
RSA 16384                 1         0.0003   
RSA/ECDSA Dual Stack      8714      2.2154

OCSP stapling             Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+--------
Supported                 39893     10.1422
Unsupported               353444    89.8578

Supported Protocols       Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
SSL2                      56197     14.2872
SSL2 Only                 6140      1.561
SSL3                      377423    95.9541
SSL3 Only                 3710      0.9432
SSL3 or TLS1 Only         118014    30.0033
TLS1                      382682    97.2911
TLS1 Only                 2707      0.6882
TLS1.1                    212833    54.1096
TLS1.1 Only               7         0.0018
TLS1.1 or up Only         74        0.0188
TLS1.2                    223413    56.7994
TLS1.2 Only               34        0.0086
TLS1.2, 1.0 but not 1.1   14809     3.765

Survey was conducted between 11th and 19th of July 2014.

Certificate Authorities

The new addition to the data collected, were the certificates provided by the servers.

It looks like around 5% of Internet facing www servers have misconfigured certificate chains: they don’t provide the intermediate CA certificates that signed their certificate. Fortunately, because we now have collected them from other servers, we can try to validate them again using those additional certificates.

The bad news is that many CA certificates still use 1024 bit RSA keys (I’ve seen them in 1776 chains presented by servers, or 0.4% of all valid chains), including few root CAs in active use. The worse news is that the vast majority of chains still depend on SHA1 signatures, including the chains that use 4096 bit CA keys.

In effect, about 90% of trust chains still provide at most 80 bit level of security (SHA-1 or 1024 bit RSA key being the weakest link) and just 10% of servers present chains with 112 bit level of security (2048 bit RSA key being the weakest link). There were only 2 chains (out of 450 000) that reached the current best practice level of 128 bit level of security (SHA 256, ECDSA 256 bit or RSA 3072+ bits).

Also, the market share of CAs is quite diverse, the most dominant root CA was used in 26% of all chains collected.

Statistics from 445095 chains provided by 582719 hosts

Server provided chains    Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
complete                  359484    61.6908
incomplete                29543     5.0699
untrusted                 193692    33.2393

Trusted chain statistics
========================

Chain length              Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
2                         2414      0.5423
3                         434366    97.5895
4                         8292      1.863
5                         23        0.0052

CA key size in chains     Count
-------------------------+---------
ECDSA 256                 2
ECDSA 384                 2
RSA 1024                  1788
RSA 2045                  1
RSA 2048                  877819
RSA 4096                  16502

Chains with CA key        Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
ECDSA 256                 2         0.0004
ECDSA 384                 2         0.0004
RSA 1024                  1776      0.399
RSA 2045                  1         0.0002
RSA 2048                  443399    99.619
RSA 4096                  16134     3.6248

Signature algorithm (ex. root) Count
------------------------------+---------
ecdsa-with-SHA384              2
sha1WithRSAEncryption          397615
sha256WithRSAEncryption        42654
sha384WithRSAEncryption        10748

Eff. host cert chain LoS  Count     Percent
-------------------------+---------+-------
80                        398413    89.5119
112                       46680     10.4876
128                       2         0.0004

Most common root CAs                          Count     Percent
---------------------------------------------+---------+-------
(2c543cd1) GeoTrust Global CA                 119586    26.8675
(157753a5) AddTrust External CA Root          68556     15.4026
(5ad8a5d6) GlobalSign Root CA                 44275     9.9473
(2e4eed3c) thawte Primary Root CA             29162     6.5519
(f081611a) The Go Daddy Group, Inc.           28250     6.347
(cbf06781) Go Daddy Root Certificate Authorit 26503     5.9545
(b204d74a) VeriSign Class 3 Public Primary Ce 26474     5.9479
(244b5494) DigiCert High Assurance EV Root CA 18086     4.0634
(653b494a) Baltimore CyberTrust Root          16986     3.8163
(b13cc6df) UTN-USERFirst-Hardware             13183     2.9618
(40547a79) COMODO Certification Authority     10947     2.4595
(ae8153b9) StartCom Certification Authority   9048      2.0328
(f387163d) Starfield Technologies, Inc.       7516      1.6886